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Shoulder dystocia happens when a baby’s shoulders become stuck behind the mother’s pubic bone during childbirth. The condition happens in about of 1 out of 100 deliveries in the United States. The condition is a medical emergency and can result in an emergency cesarean section or death of the baby.
 How it happens
The baby’s head is delivered normally, but the baby’s shoulder is unable to progress through the canal because it has become trapped under the mother’s pubic bone.
There is no one exact cause of shoulder dystocia. There are risk factors that raise the chance of shoulder dystocia, however, and the factors can be maternal or fetal – or both. Maternal risk factors are:
Fetal risk factors are:
Other risk factors are related to the delivery itself. The following situations are associated with higher rates of shoulder dystocia:
Serious complications can result if the baby’s shoulder’s become stuck behind the pubic bone. ===Maternal complications=== Complications for the mother include:
 Fetal compliations
About 20 out of 100 babies that have shoulder dystocia during childbirth will have an injury. These injuries range from temporary and mild to permanent. Complications that can affect the baby include:
Diagnosis of shoulder dystocia is made when the shoulders do not follow the head during childbirth. Typically, the head will deliver normally and then the neck will be drawn back into the birth canal as the shoulders become stuck. This drawing back of the neck is termed the “turtle sign” that indicates the condition.
Healthcare providers generally move through a series of treatment options to deliver the baby as soon as possible. These options include various maneuvers to change the baby’s position to allow birth to continue, and cesarean section.